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The Need for Finding Aqueous Film Forming Foam Alternatives


Aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) has long been a key component of fire control systems. It is recognized for successfully putting out many flames, particularly those involving flammable liquids. However, as our understanding of its environmental and health impacts deepens, the need for viable alternatives becomes increasingly urgent.

This article explores the imperative of finding AFFF alternatives, delving into the environmental, health, and regulatory concerns surrounding its usage.

Environmental and Health Impacts

Aqueous film-forming foam is a widely used firefighting agent because it can quickly suppress fires. It forms a thin film that deprives the fire of oxygen, suppressing its combustion.

It has been invaluable in industrial settings, airports, and military facilities where fires involving flammable liquids pose significant risks. However, its chemical makeup, which includes per- and poly-fluoroalkyl compounds (PFAS), has caused major environmental and health concerns.

PFAS chemicals are notorious for their persistence in the environment and their potential to bioaccumulate in living organisms, including humans. These compounds have been associated with a variety of negative health impacts, including cancer, immune system malfunction, and fertility problems. Moreover, they have been found to contaminate groundwater and surface water sources, posing long-term risks to ecosystems and public health.

An NCBI study states that using AFFF can lead to off-site migration of PFAS chemicals. This can impact the aquatic ecosystems, fish consumption, or groundwater usage. And since these are forever chemicals, a single fire-extinguishing event can significantly contribute.

Moreover, a JOEM Journal article concludes that AFFF, especially Class B extinguishers, can significantly impact the health of exposed individuals. It mentions that the health impact can be severe even when the concentration is ten times lower than what’s used for suppression.

As these concerns grew and evidence linking PFAS chemicals and their risks became clear, many individuals filed AFFF lawsuits. They alleged that the manufacturers knew or should have known about the potential dangers but failed to warn.

The number of lawsuits grew to the extent that they were consolidated into multidistrict litigation (MDL) for seamless proceedings. According to TruLaw, the latest Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation (JPML) reports show 8,061 pending lawsuits in this MDL.

Regulatory Landscape

Recognizing the risks associated with PFAS, regulatory bodies worldwide have begun to mitigate their use and impact. In the United States, for instance, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health advisory levels for PFAS in drinking water. It is also actively exploring regulatory measures to address its presence in firefighting foams and other products.

As stated by NBC News, the EPA has imposed the first limits on PFAS chemical levels in drinking water. PFOA and PFOS are limited to four parts per trillion, and PFNA, PFHxS, and GenX are limited to ten parts per trillion. The EPA estimated that around 6% to 10% of the country’s public water drinking systems must adjust to meet these limits.

Challenges in Finding Alternatives

While the need to find alternatives to AFFF is evident, the process presents numerous challenges. Any replacement must meet stringent effectiveness, safety, and environmental sustainability criteria.

It must also be compatible with existing firefighting equipment and infrastructure, ensuring a smooth operation transition. Furthermore, alternatives must undergo rigorous testing and certification processes to ensure their effectiveness and safety in real-world circumstances.

A ScienceDirect study found that fluorine-free alternatives can also harm the environment. Five of the six alternatives were highly toxic to plant growth and reproduction. Thus, effective alternatives that do not pose any hazards are still a long way off.

Exploring Sustainable Solutions

Efforts to develop AFFF alternatives are underway, with researchers and innovators exploring various approaches. One promising avenue involves using fluorine-free foams, which rely on alternative mechanisms, such as cooling and smothering, to suppress fires.

These foams have shown promise in laboratory and field tests, demonstrating effectiveness comparable to traditional AFFF formulations while minimizing risks. However, further research and development is needed to make fluorine-free options safer and more effective.

Another approach involves leveraging advances in nanotechnology to develop more efficient and environmentally friendly firefighting agents. Nanomaterials, such as graphene-based foams, offer unique properties that enhance fire suppression capabilities while reducing environmental impact. Using nanotechnology, researchers want to develop safer and more sustainable alternatives to AFFF.

The Role of Regulation and Policy

Effective regulation and policy play a crucial role in driving the adoption of AFFF alternatives. Governments and regulatory bodies must prioritize developing and implementing standards that promote safer firefighting agents while phasing out PFAS-containing foams. This may involve offering incentives for research and innovation, establishing certification programs, and imposing restrictions on using AFFF in sensitive environments.


As a PubMed study states, the growing concerns about PFAS-based AFFF have led to a surge in research on fluorine-free alternatives. The focus has shifted with changing gears since January 2023 when a new military specification (MIL-PRF-32725) for fluorine-free foam was released.

Industry Collaboration and Innovation

Finding AFFF alternatives requires collaboration across industries, including firefighting, chemistry, and environmental science. By fostering partnerships between researchers and manufacturers, stakeholders can share knowledge and expertise to accelerate the development and adoption of sustainable solutions. Industry associations and research institutions can facilitate collaboration and drive innovation in this critical area.

Frequently Asked Questions

Are Alternatives to AFFF as Successful in Putting Out Fires?

Numerous alternatives to AFFF provide equivalent or even higher fire suppression capabilities while avoiding the environmental and health hazards associated with AFFF. Extensive testing and research have demonstrated the efficacy of these options in various fire conditions.

How Do AFFF and Its Alternatives Differ in Terms of Long-Term Cost?

While the initial cost of alternative foams might vary, their long-term cost-effectiveness frequently outperforms that of AFFF due to lower environmental cleanup and health-related expenditures.


Furthermore, advances in manufacturing technology are lowering the cost of alternative foam compositions over time.

Are Alternative Foams Compatible With Current Firefighting Equipment?

Many alternative foams are intended to work with conventional firefighting equipment, such as proportioning systems, foam generators, and delivery devices. Fire departments and industrial establishments may easily migrate to alternative foams without changing their infrastructure.

To conclude, the need to find alternatives to aqueous film-forming foam is undeniable, given its use’s environmental, health, and regulatory concerns. While switching to safer firefighting chemicals offers problems, it also provides a chance to innovate and promote long-term solutions prioritizing safety.



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